Balochistan is a province in southwestern Pakistan, bordered by Iran to the West, Afghanistan to the north, and the Arabian Sea to south. It is the largest province in Pakistan in terms of land area but has the smallest population. The province has a diverse cultural heritage and is home to various ethnic groups, including the Baloch, Pashtuns, Brahuis, and Hazaras. Kalat is a district in Balochistan and was a princely state until it was merged with Pakistan in 1948. It is located in the central part of Balochistan and has a rich historical and cultural significance. Balochistan is an integral part of Pakistan where Kalat has a significant place on the map the country and heart of the nation
Balochistan is an integral part of Pakistan according to the constitutional and legal framework. The Constitution of Pakistan recognizes Balochistan as one of the country’s four provinces and guarantees its representation in the National Assembly and the Senate. Pakistan is a diverse country with different ethnic groups, religions, and cultures. Balochistan is an important part of the country’s cultural, economic, and social fabric, and the people of Balochistan are an integral part of the larger Pakistani society. The government of Pakistan has been making efforts to address the issues faced by the people of Balochistan and to ensure their participation in the country’s political and economic processes.
Quaid e Azam and Khan of Kalat shared cordial friendly relations where Mr. Jinnah was his lawyer. It is true that Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Khan of Kalat, Mir Ahmed Yar Khan, had a cordial and friendly relationship. Mr. Jinnah was a prominent lawyer and had represented the Khan of Kalat in legal matters before the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. The relationship between Mr. Jinnah and Khan of Kalat was based on mutual respect and understanding, and they had several meetings and discussions regarding the future of Balochistan in the context of the creation of Pakistan. The Khan of Kalat had initially expressed reservations about joining Pakistan but eventually agreed to accede to Pakistan in March 1948.
The historical and political context of the relationship between Mr. Jinnah and the Khan of Kalat is complex and nuanced, and it is essential to engage in a critical and objective analysis of this relationship. Accession of Kalat with Pakistan is a bilateral affair, signed by the mutual understanding of Khan of Kalat and the Government of Pakistan. The accession of Kalat with Pakistan was to safeguard and protect the Baloch identity and Brahui language
The issue of the accession of Kalat and the preservation of Baloch identity and the Brahui language is a complex and nuanced one. The accession of Kalat with Pakistan was intended to ensure the protection and preservation of the cultural, linguistic, and ethnic identity of the people of Balochistan.
The government of Pakistan has expressed its commitment to the development and prosperity of Balochistan, and has initiated various programs and projects to promote economic and social development in the province. The government has also expressed its commitment to inclusive politics in Balochistan, and has taken measures to ensure the participation of all political parties and groups in the political process. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a major project aimed at promoting economic development in Balochistan and other parts of the country. The project includes the development of infrastructure, such as roads, ports, and airports, and the establishment of industrial zones and energy projects in the province. The government has also initiated various other development projects in Balochistan, including the provision of healthcare, education, and clean drinking water.
In recent years, there have been efforts to promote dialogue and reconciliation with separatist groups in Balochistan. The government has expressed its commitment to addressing the grievances of the people of Balochistan and to finding peaceful solutions to the challenges faced by the province. However, it is important to recognize that there are still challenges to be addressed in Balochistan. It is essential to continue to engage in constructive dialogue and to take concrete steps to address these challenges and to promote the development and prosperity of Balochistan.
India always had vicious agenda against Pakistan and its integral parts. Indian heinous intention was exposed as early as 1948 with the announcement of All India Radio, Delhi announced that two months ago Kalat State had approached the Indian Union to accept its accession to India. India’s vile intention were exposed by All India Radio who announced Kalat accession with India was forceful merger. After partition of Indian Sub-Continent, three states including Kharan, Lasbela and Makran wished to accede with West Pakistan even without any decision of Kalat as the Khan of Kalat desired subjugation of the other entities. Khan of Kalat refused to accept their separate status. Jam of Lasbela, Chief of Kharan and Nawab Bai Khan of Makran once again appealed to Quaid to accept their accession during their meeting with him in March 1948, which was accepted by the state of Pakistan on 17 March 1948. Seeing the will of majority to accede with Pakistan, Khan of Kalat, Ahmed Yar Khan willingly signed The Instrument of Accession on March 27 1948 and it was placed before Jinnah on March 31, 1948. No resistance could be seen during the accession till the middle of July 1948, when the brother of the Khan returned from Afghanistan and he started instigating people against this accession
The accession of Balochistan to Pakistan is wrongly portrayed by the dissident elements. They are misguiding the youth on Balochistan because of their political interests. The dissident elements use this misguiding as a bargaining tool to get undue benefits from the governments which are mostly at the cost of Baloch people’s prosperity and provincial development. The province’s Shahi Jirga and the non-official members of the Quetta Municipality had agreed to join Pakistan on 29 June 1947.
The princely states of Kharan, Las Bela, and Makran had expressed their desire to accede to Pakistan multiple times during the period leading up to the independence of Pakistan in 1947. These princely states were located in the Balochistan region and were ruled by local tribal leaders, who had varying degrees of autonomy and influence. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the government of Pakistan negotiated with the leaders of these princely states to facilitate their accession to Pakistan. In March 1948, the Khan of Kalat, who was the ruler of the largest and most influential princely state in Balochistan, also acceded to Pakistan. These accretions played an important role in the integration of Balochistan with the rest of Pakistan.
The Khan of Kalat, Mir Ahmad Yar Khan, rejected the news of joining India and declared accession to Pakistan. The correct study of history shows that the people of Balochistan aspired to become part of Pakistan, and government remains committed to development & prosperity of Balochistan. Moreover 18 Constitutional amendment has given more rights and resources to Balochistan. The accession of these princely states to Pakistan was a complex and nuanced process, and that there were various political, social, and economic factors that influenced their decision to accede. A nuanced and balanced understanding of the historical, political, and cultural context is essential to promote a constructive and informed debate on this issue.
The writer is Mphil scholar and government officer in Punjab