“Climate change is sometimes misunderstood as being about changes in the weather. In reality; it is about changes in our way of life”.

Paul Polman

According to the United Nations, “Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, but since the 1800s, human activities have been the main driver of climate change, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels (like coal, oil, and gas), which produces heat-trapping gases”. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in 2022 that life on Earth in the future would be more dangerous than ever because of the collapse of the ecosystem, climate hazards, floods, and heat waves. These changes in the ecosystem will create mental and physical health problems due to morbidity and mortality.

A health journal report argued that global temperature rise would be limited to less than 1.5°C at pre-industrial levels to safeguard humanity. Few climate summits have argued that if the global temperature were kept below 1.5°C, it would reduce the harm to most vulnerable regions of Africa and other third-world countries and developing countries around the globe.

Climate change has become a severe global issue, and different countries have initiated other policies to tackle it. The Sino-German cooperation on climate change under the name Internal Climate Initiative (IKI) is remarkable. It facilitates policy dialogue and technical exchange among stakeholders. And knowledge -sharing to tackle climate change and, above all, to share the lessons learned by two countries in their De-carbonization. The project covered the following areas: climate policy on mitigation, transparency, and adaptation,  NDC implementation like Industrial De-carbonizations, Trilateral cooperation, Carbon markets, Montreal Protocols, sustainable finance, Greenhouse Gas mitigation, Non-CO, etc. This cooperation will empower Chinese provinces to mitigate Climate Change.

President Biden brought world leaders together in November 2022, urging that no country can solve the climate crisis alone. We should work together to mitigate this issue. He explained that global warming should be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius to overcome the problem. He further articulated that the most vulnerable countries coping with devastating climate impacts should be supported to reduce emissions and fossil energy to stop the catastrophe.

The developing countries are struggling to overcome this issue, but fewer resources and cooperation from the developed countries make them mover vulnerable. According to Brooking Policy report, accelerating climate change in developing countries will become most severely affected up to 2030 as these countries emit more than half the annual global total of Greenhouse gas(GHG), so it will affect developing countries more than developed countries.

Pakistan is a country with latitudes of 24° and 37° in the north and longitudes of 61° to75° east. The government is situated from north to south with 1600 kilometers whereas 885 kilometers from east to west. It is a country with rich natural resources, and about (22.2 million ha.) of land is under agricultural use. Pakistan’s physiography and climate conditions are highly diverse, divided into eleven geographical, nine major ecological zones, and ten agroecological zones; due to their varied position, the climate conditions in Pakistan are highly hectic. The country faces multiple threats due to droughts, glacial melt, natural disasters, and rising sea levels, with a low forest cover of 4.5%. The population of Pakistan is increasing at alarming rates, and it has become the fifth largest country in the world. The human development index value 2019 was 0.557, placing Pakistan in the medium HDI category. As per the United Nations Developing Programme of 2020, the country is positioning 154 out of 189 countries regarding greenhouse gas emissions. It is one of the top ten countries facing acute climate change-induced extreme weather due to its heat waves, flooding, glacial meltdown, and expansive smog. Energy security is yet another focal issue that indulges Pakistan in climate change.

In a recent report by the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution 2019, it has been claimed that every year 128,000 Pakistanis die due to pollution-related illnesses. It has also claimed that floods, super floods, and extreme monsoons have further led Pakistan to a catastrophic position, impacting more than 23 million people.

If such practices of severe climate change continue, this country will face tough economic and social challenges shortly. Now the question arises of what to be done. To ensure that climate change is mainstreamed, it will lead the country towards compatible development and steer the economy in worse condition. The government of Pakistan should take some preventive measures by adhering following policy. The government should integrate the climate change policy with other inter-related national policies. The government of Pakistan should make climate-resilient infrastructures. The government should also encourage agroecological zones in the country. The authority of climate change should be activated to promote tree plantation for long-term sustainability and conservation of natural resources. The National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) should actively boost the country’s water, food, and energy security. The climate policy and stakeholders should ensure the United Nations Sustainable Development (SDGs 2030); for this, they should bring their attention to flood-affected zones in Pakistan.

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