United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres stated that the planet has entered a new era of ”global boiling.” Climate Change Institute (CCI) findings show a record-breaking temperature; the average global air temperature has risen from 16.25ºC from 1979 to 2000 to 17.14ºC in 2023. Meanwhile,
NASA declared July 2023 the hottest month recorded in the global temperature record since 1880. It’s a catastrophic threat to the human race and world habitat.
Greenhouse gas emissions have increased by 50%. As a result, Economic losses are recorded in billions of dollars, and more than 3.6 billion people around the globe are affected. It is a wake-up call for world leaders to take initiatives with strong political will. Conference of the Parties (Cop) proposes a divide between the developed and developing world. Later, in 1997, a carbon quota was allotted in the Kyoto Protocol. As per that quota, 37 countries exceeded their quota, and 160 countries emitted less carbon than their quota.
The stance of the Global North, led by the United States, is that climate change is a global problem because world habitat is common and it has been polluted by carbon emissions from both developed and developing worlds. US Contribute about 25%, European Union (EU) 22%, Canada 4%, China 35%, India 9%. Therefore, it is the collective responsibility of the whole world to make carbon cuts.
Contrary to the stance of the Global South, led by China and India, it is not the collective responsibility of the whole world because the United Nations Climate Change Conferences (UNCCC) stated that the developed world already makes more than 79% of carbon emissions. Besides, the industrialization of the developing world is a recent phenomenon. Secondly, the developed world has the financial capacity to shift to clean energy, while the developing world needs time to shift energy. Therefore, the developed world should make more carbon cuts.
Cop21, all major carbon-emitting countries agreed to the carbon cuts plan. Global North has to immediately make carbon cuts by 55%, while Global South has to make carbon cuts by 35% within 15 years. This would reduce the global temperature by 1.5% till 2030. The binding factor of Cop21 was its success. Cop21 resulted in 100b financial allocations to the worst affected countries. The US will contribute 28%, and the rest of the major emitters will contribute 75%. And it has to be allocated in 5 years.
President Obama declared that climate change is the biggest threat to United States National Security. The US will lead this issue and make carbon cuts first. He rejected new coal projects and installed clean energy projects. The US addressed climate change issues for the first time, resulting in COP21. The vision of President Xi Jinping, China is increasingly becoming global, so China has to shoulder global responsibilities, too. Hence, China activated solar industries, built 3000+ hydroelectric dams, and became the largest civil nuclear energy producer and second-largest soft loan giver. China signed the Paris Climate Treaty as a binding treaty.
Cop26, the carbon cut-off plan still needs to be met by every country. Secondly, President Trump said the US will again do Re-carbonization. Climate change is a natural phenomenon, not because of carbon emissions.
Climate change is a hoax and myth created by China to slow down American growth. If China makes carbon cuts after 2030, the US will also make carbon cuts after 2030.
Furthermore, the financial allocations were done 75% instead of 100%, in which the US paid with a shortage of 13b$, and the rest of the countries paid with a shortage of 9b$ altogether. President Biden committed only 14b$ instead of 38b$.
Cop27, Every country worldwide should minimize carbon emissions by almost 35%. Major carbon emitters started purchasing carbon quotas from poor countries; consequently, the major 38 emitters continued carbon emissions with immunity. So, the carbon trading should be legalized. Simultaneously, the efforts of Pakistan announced the loss and damages fund. The UN Secretary-General said Pakistan faced the worst floods in its history. The floods were because of climate change, not by their defaults. As a result, the funds were allocated but with unclear criteria for fund distribution.
Plantation drive policy is to preserve the existing forests of the world. Cop15 resulted in the commitment of the plantation of two new forests in Brazil and Indonesia. But only 50% of its success ratio was found in Cop21 findings. Only Pakistan and Argentina met the target of plantation, and the rest of the countries badly missed the target. In COP26 and COP27, the world faces an increase in deforestation because of wildfires and the burning of trees.
The politics of climate change in the era of global boiling is crucial for the future of the human race. As harsh weather events become more frequent, it is of vital importance for countries to take bold actions. By prioritizing renewable energy, implementing environmental policies, and assisting the worst-affected countries, we can ease the catastrophic impacts of climate change and strive towards a sustainable and resilient future for all.